Mapping is probably the discipline most important to geology. From the late 1700s, and really starting with widespread work in Europe in the early 1800s, geologists have hiked over the ground, comparing soils and outcrops and fossils and every other characteristic. Maps, along with stratigraphic charts and other specialized diagrams are the mainstay of expression.

 

Contouring, Landforms on Contour Maps, Examples and Topographic Profiles, Review Terms and Concepts